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The Feet in HCI: A Survey of Foot-Based Interaction

Eduardo Velloso, Dominik Schmidt, Jayson Alexander, Hans Gellersen, Andreas Bulling

ACM Computing Surveys, 48(2), pp. 1–36, 2015.


Foot-operated computer interfaces have been studied since the inception of Human-Computer Interaction. Thanks to the miniaturisation and decreasing cost of sensing technology, there is an increasing interest exploring this alternative input modality, but no comprehensive overview of its research landscape. In this survey, we review the literature on interfaces operated by the lower limbs. We investigate the characteristics of users and how they affect the design of such interfaces. Next, we describe and analyse foot-based research prototypes and commercial systems in how they capture input and provide feedback. We then analyse the interactions between users and systems from the perspective of the actions performed in these interactions. Finally, we discuss our findings and use them to identify open questions and directions for future research.



@article{velloso15_csur, author = {Velloso, Eduardo and Schmidt, Dominik and Alexander, Jayson and Gellersen, Hans and Bulling, Andreas}, title = {{The Feet in HCI: A Survey of Foot-Based Interaction}}, journal = {ACM Computing Surveys}, year = {2015}, volume = {48}, number = {2}, pages = {1--36}, doi = {10.1145/2816455} }